外壁塗装の作業手順と期間は、どれくらいかかるの?

これから外壁を塗り替えようと思っている人は
「どれくらいの期間で仕上がるのか?」も気になると思います。

どのような手順で施工が進められて、期間はどれくらいかかるのか?
先に理解しておくことで、計画が立てやすくなりますね。

ここでは、一般的な外壁塗装の手順と大体の期間をお話しします。

一般的な外壁塗装の手順

■具体的な作業手順は?

外壁塗装は塗り替えるだけの作業ではもちろん済みません。
8段階を経て、引き渡しとなります。

1. 足場を作る

まず、外壁を塗装するためには、高いところにも行かなければいけませんので、足場を組み立てます。
足場の組立前には、近隣の方々への挨拶も行なわれます。
足場が完成するまでは、1・日程度かかります。

2. 高圧洗浄で汚れを取る

塗装をする前にしっかり汚れ(カビやホコリなど)を落とします。
実際に洗浄する場所は、外壁以外にも板金部分なども含まれます。

汚れは、外壁部分は高圧洗浄で、屋根などはトルネード洗浄で洗っていきます。
カビなどのしつこい汚れは表面がきれいでも下地に根を張っているのでこれを洗浄するために

洗剤を使ったバイオ洗浄を行い、値を張ったカビを落としていきます。
高圧洗浄にかかる時間はケースバイケースですが半日~1日ほどかかります。

3. 養生をする

建物のドアやサッシといった塗装しない部分や建物周辺にある植木などにシートをかぶせて塗料がかからないように保護する作業のことを養生といいます。

4. 下地処理・下地調整を行なう

下地処理とは、建物の壁に傷やひび割れ(クラック)がある場合に補修する作業です。
例えば、建材と建材の間の隙間に防水や気密性維持の為に使われているコーキング(シーリング)の割れや表面的なひびわれ、深度にもなどが挙げられます。

そういったひび割れを治しておかないと塗った後もひび割れが再発してしまうのでしっかり直しておく必要があります。

次の作業、下地調整は下塗りとも言いますが、シーラーという接着剤を使用して、外壁に塗料がしっかりフィットするように調整する作業です。

また、旧外壁色をリセットしたり、外壁本体(下地)への塗装が浸透してしまうことを防ぐ役割を担っています。

ちなみに下塗り剤には無色透明のものと色つきのものがあります。

5. 中塗り・上塗りをする
下地調整が終わったら、実際に塗料を塗っていき色を整えていきます。
まず、厚みを持たせた下地をつくり上塗りを補強する為に、中塗りという作業が行われます。
厚みがでることで、色落ちしてまだら状になってしまうことを防ぎ美観を保ちます。

中塗りと上塗りの間隔についてですが、塗装の乾燥時間は環境にもよりますが約4時間程かかるそうです。
その後、問題がなければ、仕上げの最後の塗料を上塗りします。

こうして下塗り・中塗り・上塗りと3回塗りをすることで塗装の強度を強くすることができるのです。
普通は3度塗りですが、4回塗りだと理想的な強度になるらしいです。

2度塗りで行うところもあるそうですが、耐久性や美観の問題があるため絶対オススメしません。

6. 養生を外す
ドアやサッシ類、建物周辺の植木などに設置したシートを外していきます。

7. 最終チェックをする
作業前に提示した見積書の内容を見ながら、実際の仕上がりをチェックします。
ここでは、依頼者も一緒にチェックしますので、気になる点は遠慮せずに申し出ましょう。

8. 足場を撤去して掃除する
最終チェックが終われば、足場を撤去して、作業で出たゴミや汚れなどを取る掃除も行なわれます。

9. 引き渡し
すべての作業が終了したことを依頼者に告げて、依頼者の承認を得たら無事終了となり、引渡しになります。

一般的な期間はどれくらい?

期間は建物の大きさや使用する塗料によって違いますが、一般的には30平米程度の建物で最大2週間ほどの予定です。

作業手順からもわかるように、外壁塗装は一度塗料を塗っておしまいという単純作業ではありません。

足場を組み下地準備を経て、塗料は塗って乾燥を3回繰り返すことになりますから、それなりに時間はかかります。

依頼者から修正の申し出があれば、また時間が必要となりますので、余裕を持って計画を立てるようにしましょう。

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